MEDECA PRELIMINARY STUDIES AND MEASUREMENT
ECA4MED
MEDECA PRELIMINARY STUDIES
This section provides the main background documents that report the experience and the main results already obtained from the creation of other ECA zones prior to the MED zone, such as the Baltic zone.
The MEDECA study was conducted and published in autumn 2018. A complementary study was commissioned by Cerema’s Martime Affaires department to conduct additional analysis of certain impacts of the project. This study addresses two issues: – The consequences of the creation of a SECA in the Mediterranean for commercial routes. – The number of years required for complete renewal of the Mediterranean fleet.
COMPLETION OF THE KNOWLEDGE GATHERING AND CARRYING OUT OF THE FURTHER STUDY RELATED TO THE ADDITIONAL ECONOMIC IMPACT EVALUATION PURSUANT TO THE ROAD MAP FOR A PROPOSAL FOR THE POSSIBLE DESIGNATION OF THE MED SOX ECA
This report presents the results of the knowledge gathering and the further study completed and carried out under LOT 4 – Regional (Additional economic impact evaluation) pursuant to the Road Map for a Proposal for the Possible Designation of the Mediterranean Sea, as a whole, as an Emission Control Area for Sulphur Oxides (Med SOX ECA) Pursuant to MARPOL Annex VI, within the Framework of the Barcelona Convention (Decision IG.24/8), hereinafter referred to as the road map.
Ship traffic emissions degrade air quality in coastal areas and contribute to climate impacts globally. The estimated health burden of exposure to shipping emissions in coastal areas may inform policy makers as they seek to reduce exposure and associated potential health impacts. This work estimates the PM2.5-attributable impacts in the form of premature mortality and cardiovascular and respiratory hospital admissions, from long-term exposure to shipping emissions. Health impact assessment (HIA) was performed in 8 Mediterranean coastal cities, using a baseline conditions from the literature and a policy case accounting for the MARPOL Annex VI rules requiring cleaner fuels in 2020. Input data were (a) shipping contributions to ambient PM2.5 concentrations based on receptor modelling studies found in the literature, (b) population and health incidence data from national statistical registries, and (c) geographically-relevant concentration-response functions from the literature. Long-term exposure to ship-sourced PM2.5 accounted for 430 (95% CI: 220–650) premature deaths per year, in the 8 cities, distributed between groups of cities: Barcelona and Athens, with>100 premature deaths/ year, and Nicosia, Brindisi, Genoa, Venice, Msida and Melilla, with tens of premature deaths/year. The more stringent standards in 2020 would reduce the number of PM2.5-attributable premature deaths by 15% on average. HIA provided a comparative assessment of the health burden of shipping emissions across Mediterranean coastal cities, which may provide decision support for urban planning with a special focus on harbour areas, and in view of the reduction in sulphur content of marine fuels due to MARPOL Annex VI in 2020.
PASSENGER SHIPPING IN GREECE IN 2016-2020: PERFORMANCE, ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTION AND PROSPECTS
The scope of the study is to present the latest developments in passenger shipping in Greece and the challenges that it faces and to highlight its contribution to the Greek economy at national and local level. The contribution of passenger shipping to the economy includes the direct, indirect and induced effects of the transportation services by sea (domestic and Adriatic passenger routes), together with the wider effects associated with the development of other sectors (such as tourism, agriculture, manufacturing, and exports) through freight and passenger transportation over regular shipping routes.
This study explores the impacts of alternative emission control interventions for international shipping on the European Seas on relevant air pollutant emissions, examines their consequence on ambient air quality in Europe and the neighbouring regions, and explores the resulting improvements of human health. It estimates the costs of the various policy interventions, and compares them with monetized benefits on human health and other impacts.
THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF MED SOX ECA IN MALTA >
The Environment and Resources Authority (ERA) has engaged E-Cubed Islands Ltd to carry out a study on the socio-economic impacts in Malta that may potentially arise from the designation of Mediterranean Sea as a Sulphur Emission Control Area (Med SOX ECA) in 20241. In line with the Terms of Reference of the Contract, the scope of this study is two-fold: 1. To assess and quantify the socio-economic impacts on Malta arising from the proposed designation of the Mediterranean Sea as a whole as a SOX ECA, and 2. To provide recommendations with respect to the policy options required to address any negative impacts involved.